Pigmentation and Dark Patches

images (1)



Freckles are small, multiple, symmetrical,discrete, flat, pale brownish hyperpigmented lesion, that occurs in sun exposed area of fair complexioned individuals. It is caused by UV radiation leading to localized excess of production of melanin (pigment responsible for skin colour).

It is more commonly seen in genetically predisposed individuals and mostly, over face, shoulder and back. Seasonal variation i.e., increases in summer and decrease in winters in the number is also seen in this condition.

Melasma / Chloasma

About Melasma

It is an acquired patchy tan brown or blue-gray skin discoloration seen on the face and generally common among women in their reproductive years. Though also possible in males, it is seldom seen in them.


Melasma typically appears on the forehead, upper cheeks, upper lip, forehead, and chin of women between 20-50 years of age.


While its exact cause is still unknown, some of the common triggers are

  • A history of daily or intermittent and unprotected sun exposure.
  • External hormones like birth control pills, hormone replacement therapy, and internal hormonal changes during pregnancy. Melasma that occurs during pregnancy is called chloasma or “the mask of pregnancy” and is caused due to an increase in hormone levels like estrogen, progesterone and a melanocyte stimulating hormone.
  • Family history
  • Anti-seizure medications
  • Certain products or treatments that cause an increase in melanin production.

Treatment at Christell

Management of melasma requires a comprehensive and professional approach by a trained medical professional.

  • During the consult, the skin is tested to determine its condition
  • Based on the test results a home care regimen is prescribed.
  • The home care is just as important as the clinic procedures

  • Chemical peels
  • Skin polishing
  • Laser therapy to reduce pigmentation
  • Mesotherapy – injecting skin lightening medicines to localized dark patches
  • The home care is continued post treatments to maintain the results.